Fri 19 Jan 2018
OOO "Forward"

Shipping glossary

Article Index
Shipping glossary

Accessorial service A service in addition to usual liner service, normally with an added cost. Such kind of services include packing, loading, storage, etc.
Accrual An accounting concept. It is a gradual increase by addition over a period of time and is a way of recognising that an expense (or revenue) and the related liability (or asset) can increase over time and not as signalled by an explicit cash transaction.
Acquiescence When a bill of lading is accepted or signed by a shipper or shipper's agent without protest, the shipper is said to acquiesce to the terms, giving a silent form of consent.
Ad Valorem According to value.
Ad Valorem Duty A customs duty which is a percentage made upon the value of goods.
Ad Valorem Freight Bill of lading freight charged on goods of very high value at so much percent on the declared value of the goods.
Advice of Shipment A notice sent to a local or foreign buyer advising that shipment has gone forward and containing details of packing, routing, etc. A copy of the invoice is usually enclosed and sometimes, if desired, a copy of the bill of lading.
Advising bank The bank which advises the seller that a letter of credit has been opened in his favour by the buyer, however, the advising bank does not necessarily guarantee payment.
Affreight To hire, as a ship, to transport freight.
Affreightment, Contract of An agreement by a steamship line to provide cargo space on a vessel at a specified time and for a specified price to accommodate an exporter or importer.
Agent (Agt.) A person authorized to transact business for and in the name of another person or company.
Air Freight Forwarder
A type of freight forwarder who specializes in air cargo. Refer to Freight Forwarder or Forwarder.
Air waybill The air waybill (also called air consignment note) is the forwarding agreement or carrying agreement between shipper and air carrier and is obtained from the airline used to ship the goods in question. Air waybills are issued only in nonnegotiable form.
All commodity rate
A freight rate applying, with certain restrictions, to any and all commodities.
All inclusive rate (AI) Freight rate that is inclusive of all charges.
Allowance A sum granted as a reimbursement or repayment; a deduction from the gross weight or value of goods.
Also Notify Party A second notify party to whom carrier sends its arrival notice advising of goods coming forward for delivery.
Apparent Authority Also known as estoppel, it is the authority of an agent which is deemed to apply in law, perhaps by inference from the principal's present or previous conduct.
Apparent Good Order When freight appears to be free of damage so far as a general survey can determine.
Arbitrary A stated amount over a fixed rate to one point to make a rate to another point.
Arbitration A procedure under which a neutral third party hears both the unions and the employers side in a dispute and issues an award that is binding upon both; also, the final step of a grievance process.
Arrival notice

Advice that carrier sends to consignee advising of goods coming forward for delivery. Pertinent information such as BL number, container number and total charges due from consignee, etc are included and sent to consignee prior to vessel arrival. This is done gratuitously by carrier to ensure smooth delivery but there is no obligation by carrier to do so and the responsibility to monitor transit and present himself to take timely delivery still rest with the consignee.

Awkward cargo Cargo of irregular size that either be containerised (packed in container) or uncontainerised (without equipment associated with) in the transport. They require prior approval on case by case basis before confirmation of booking.
B/L Master A document provided by the shipper after handing over the cargo to the carrier, tells the carrier how the B/L should be raised. Also known as B/L instruction or shipping instruction.
Bank guarantee Guarantee issued by a bank to a carrier to release cargo in lieu of original bill of lading.
Bareboat Charter Party A charter party under which the shipowner provides vessel only and the charterer provides crew and cargo, normally for a period of years. Also known as demise charter.
Basic freight Ocean freight excludes all charges.
Bdl. Bundle. A kind of customary packaging unit.
Berth term Shipped under rate that does not include cost of loading or unloading carrier.
Bill of lading (B/L) Official legal document representing ownership of cargo; negotiable document to receive cargo; contract for cargo between shipper and carrier.
Bill of lading Ton

See check Revenue Ton

Black powder content An IMCO standard information requirement for explosive dangerous goods.
Blanket waybill A waybill covering two or more consignments of freight.
Blocked train Railcars grouped in a train by destination so that segments (blocks) can be uncoupled and routed to different destinations as the train moves through various junctions. Eliminates the need to break up a train and sort individual railcars at each junction.
Blocking or bracing Wood or metal supports to keep shipments in place in or on railcars.
Bls. Bales. A kind of customary packing unit.
Bobtail Movement of a tractor, without trailer, over the highway.
Bona fide In good faith.
Bond Shipments moving under a country Customs bonds.
Bond port Port of initial entry of a vessel to any country per custom's regulations. Also known as First Port of Call.
Bonded Logistics Park (Center)
It Improves logistics between free trade zones and ports when free trade zones are isolated from the ports.
Within a bonded logistics park, there are bonded warehousing, allotment and distribution, information processing, import and export trade, customs check and maintenance, commodities exhibition, and centralized Customs declaration.

Import, export and distribution of the cargo do not undergo Customs check procedures of both the ports and the free trade zones. The customs process in bonded logistics parks significantly achieves the advantages of the countrys preferential policies for both the FTZ and ports.
Bonded freight Freight moving under a bond to U. S. Customs or to the Internal Revenue Service, and to be delivered only under stated conditions.
Bonded indemnity A certificate filed with a carrier, relieving it from liability to which it would otherwise be subject.
Bonded warehouse

A warehouse bonded by customs authorities for storage of bonded goods prior to cargo being cleared.

A facility or consolidation centre that is authorized by customs to store goods, usually separately on dutiable & non-dutiable goods, pending customs inspection and clearance. The goods in it are secured under customs custody. The payment of duties and taxes are only payable once the goods are removed.

Authorized operators of bonded warehouse are often required to provide custom bond.

Booking Arrangements with a carrier, often a steamship or airline, for the acceptance and carriage of passengers or freight.
Booking number A reference number for booking registered. It should be unique without duplication in three years period.
Booking status
The status of booking in process from time of registration to the final stage of firm acceptance or rejection. It is composed of following status:
(a) Cancelled: rejected or voided due to no show;
(b) Confirmed: acknowledged with firm acceptance;
Confirmed subject to space availability: acknowledged acceptance of booking subject to confirmation in agreed time frame;
(d) Pending: acknowledged receipt of booking yet subject to approval for acceptance.
Bottom air delivery A condition whereby temperature controlled air is introduced into the container at floor level.
Box Common term for an ocean going freight container.
Boxcar A closed freight car.
Break-bulk cargo Goods shipped loose in the vessels hold and not in a container.
Breakbulk (BB) A term used to describe cargo which cannot be containerised due to its size and/or nature.
British Thermal Unit (BTU) The amount of heat required to produce a temperature change of one degree Fahrenheit in one pound of water.
Broken stowage The loss of space caused by irregularity in the shape of packages; any void or empty space in a container not occupied by cargo.
Broker (a) A person who arranges for transportation of loads, usually large operations, for a percentage of the revenue from the load; (b) In Canada, an owner-operator.
Brokerage Fee paid to freight forwarder by the carrier for services performed.
Brokerage license Authority granted by the Federal Maritime Commission to engage in the business of arranging for transportation of persons or property in interstate commerce.
Bulk carriers A vessel carrying dry, liquid, grain, not packaged, bundled or bottled cargo, and is loaded without marks & number or count.
Bulk freight Not in packages or containers; shipped loose in the hold of a ship. Grain, coal and sulfur are usually bulk freight.
Bulk-freight container Refers to a container with a discharge batch in the front wall; allows bulk commodities to be grasped by loading hatches.
Bull rings Cargo-securing devices mounted in the floor of containers; allow lashing and securing of cargo.
Bunker surcharge (BAF, BSC) Bunker Adjustment factor (BAF), or Bunker Surcharge (BSC) are surcharges assessed by carrier to freight rates to reflect current cost of bunker.
Bunkers Heavy oil used as fuel for ocean vessel.
Bx. Please see Box.
Customs Trade Partnership Against Terrorism.
US legislative body enforcing internal physical security conciousness& awareness within carriers.
C.A.F. Currency Adjustment Factor. Percentage by which the rate is either increased or decreased in response to fluctating exchange rates.
C.B.M. (C.M.) Cubic meter. A measure of cargo volume
C.F. (Cu. Ft.) Cubic feet.
C.F.S. See Container Freight Station.
C.I. Cost and insurance. A price that includes the cost of the goods, the marine insurance and all transportation charges except the ocean freight to the named point of destination.
C.K.D. Abbreviation for Cars Knocked Down. Automobile parts and subassemblies manufactured abroad and transported to destinated assembly plant. A classification of Third party International shippers. See Knocked Down.
C.M. (a) Cubic Meter (capital letters).
(b) Correction Memo.
C.O.D. Collect (cash) on Delivery; Carried on Docket (pricing); Change of Destination.
C.O.F.C. Container on a railway flatcar.
C.O.G.S.A. Carriage of Goods by Sea Act.
CFC's (Chloroflurocarbons) Chemical compounds containing mixtures of carbon, chlorine and fluorine molecules. Because of their stability, lack of flammability and ability to absorb and give up heat readily, CFC's have in the past been popular refrigerants. However, CFC's have been
Cost and Freight means that the seller delivers when the goods pass the ship's rail in the port of shipment.
CFS/CFS A kind of cargo movement by container. Delivered loose at origin point with vanning by carrier, devanned by carrier at destination, and picked up loose at destination.
CFS/CY A kind of cargo movement by container. Loose cargo received at origin point, loaded in a container by carrier, then delivered intact at destination.
Cost and Freight means that the seller delivers when the goods pass the ships's rail in the port of shipment.
One of 13 INCOTERMS.
Carriage and Insurance paid tomeans that the seller delivers the goods to the carrier nominated by him, but the seller must in addition pay the cost of carriage necessary to bring the goods to the named destination. This means that the buyer bears all risks and any additional costs occurring after the goods have been so delivered. However, in CIP the seller also has to procure insurance against the buyer's risk of loss of or damage to the goods during the carriage.
One of 13 INCOTERMS Carriage paid to means that the seller delivers the goods to the carrier nominated by him bsut the seller must in addition pay the cost of carriage necessary to bring the goods to the named destination. This means that the buyer bears risks and any costs occurring after the goods have been so delivered.
Container Service Charge.
European THC on Transatlantic Trade
Container Security Initiative. US Government legislation designed to improve security against terrioists.
CY Container Yard. Point at which carrier hands over to or receive laden containers from merchant haulier. Commonly where mode of transport changes e.g. a sea port, feeder terminal, barge terminal or rail ramp.
CY/CFS Cargo loaded in a full container by a shipper at origin, delivered to pier facility at destination, and then devanned by carrier for loose pick up.
CY/CY Cargo loaded by shipper in a full container at origin and delivered to carrier's terminal at destination for pick up intact by consignee.
Capacity/Weight (Container) Total internal container volume (LxWxD) or weight limitation.
Captain's protest A document prepared by the captain of a vessel on arriving at port; shows conditions en-countered during voyage, generally for the purpose of relieving ship owner of any loss to cargo and shifting responsibility for reimbursement to the insurance company.
Car pooling Use of individual carrier equipment through a central agency for the benefit of carriers and shippers.
Cargo manifest A manifest that lists only cargo, without freight and charges.
Cargo nature The classification of cargo for special stowage arrangement.
Carload The quantity of freight required for the application of a carload rate.
Carload rate A rate applicable to a carload of goods.
Carnet Any of various customs documents required for crossing some international borders.
Carrier Any individual, company or corporation engaged in transporting goods.
Carrier's lien Right of carrier to retain property as security for charges.
Cartage Usually refers to intracity hauling on drays or trucks.
Cellular vessel A vessel designed with internal ribbing to permit the support of stacked containers.
Certificate of origin Document certifying the country of origin of goods which is normally issued or signed by a Chamber of Commerce or Embassy.
Charter party (C/P) A written contract between the owner of a vessel and the person desiring to employ the vessel (charterer); sets forth the terms of the arrangement such as freight rate and ports involved in the trip.
Chartered ship A ship under lease by its owners to others.
Charterer The person to whom is given the use of the whole of the carrying capacity of a ship for the transportation of goods or passenger for a specified time.
Chassis A wheeled flat bed or a trailer constructed to accommodate containers moved over the road.
Chilling In strawberries, exposure to temperatures low enough to induce the production of food reserves needed to support vigorous vegetative growth.
Chilling injury Injury caused by low but non-freezing temperatures.
Chock A piece of wood or other material placed at the side of cargo to prevent it from rolling or moving sideways.
Clean bill of lading
A bill of lading which states that the goods have been shipped in apparent good order and condition without any qualification or remarks.
Clearance limits
The size beyond which cars or loads cannot use bridges, tunnels, etc.
Cleared without examination
Cleared by Customs without inspection.
Refrigeration equipment attachable to an insulated container that does not have its own refrigeration unit.
Closing date
Last day on which export cargo can be accepted for a nominated sailing.
Collapsible container Container with hinged or removable parts; its volume can be reduced when transported empty.
Collecting bank A bank that acts as an agent to the seller's bank (the presenting bank). The collecting bank assumes no responsibility for either the documents or the merchandise.
Combined transport Carriage by more than one mode of transport against one contract of carriage.
Combined transport document (CTD) The Combined Transport Operators (CTO) bill of lading.
Combined transport operator (CTO) A carrier who contracts as a principal to perform a combined transport operation.
Commercial invoice Represents a complete record of the transaction between exporter and importer with regard to the goods sold. Also reports the content of the shipment and serves as the basis for all other documents about the shipment.
Commodity Article shipped.
Commodity rate Rates of freight applied individually to articles which move regularly and in large quantities.
Common carrier A transportation company operating under a Certificate of Convenience and Necessity; provides service to the general public at published rates.
Common tariff A tariff published by or for two or more transportation lines.
Compressor Mechanical device used to compress and pump refrigerant within a refrigeration unit. The compressor converts high-temperature, low pressure refrigerant into high-temperature, high-pressure refrigerant.
Concealed damage Damage that is not evident from viewing the unopened package.
Concealed loss Contents missing from a package that looks unopened.
Condenser Heat exchanging device which gives up waste heat from the circulating refrigerant into an external medium from which the heat can be dissipated. Condensers convert high-temperature, high-pressure refrigerant into low-temperature, high-pressure refrigerant. Air-cooled condensers give up heat into the atmosphere outside the container. Water-cooled condensers give up heat into circulating water supplied from an d returned to external sources. Condenser fans in an air-cooled condenser improve the heat transfer by circulating external air over the condenser coils and fins.
Conference An association of ship owners operating in the same trade route who operate under collective conditions and agree on tariff rates.
Conference rate Freight rates arrived at by a conference of carriers, generally water carriers.
Confirmed letter of credit A letter of credit, issued by a foreign bank, whose validity has been confirmed by a domestic bank. An exporter with a confirmed letter of credit is assured of payment even if the foreign buyer or the foreign bank defaults.
Confirming bank The bank that adds its confirmation to another bank's (the issuing bank's) letter of credit and promises to pay the beneficiary upon presentation of documents in compliance with the letter of credit.
Connecting carrier A carrier that has a direct physical connection with another or that forms a link between two or more carriers.
Consignee A person or company to whom the shipment of commodities are to be consigned.
Consignor The person or company consigning a shipment to buyer that is shown on the bill of lading as the shipper.
Consolidated cargo Cargo containing of shipments of two or more shippers, usually shipped by a firm called a consolidator. The consolidator takes advantage of lower F.C.L. rates, and savings are passed on to shippers.
Consolidation The combination of many small shipments into one container.
Consolidator A person or firm performing a consolidation service for others.
Consortium Group of carriers pooling resources in a trade lane to maximize their resources efficiently.
Container A vehicle designed to transport cargo of many types in continuous transportation. It is also referred to an unit of packaging which is smaller in sense in which articles are packed.
Container freight station (CFS, C.F.S.) Consolidation depots where parcels of cargo are grouped and loaded into containers.
Container gross weight Please refer to Gross Weight.
Container load plan (CLP) A document prepared to show all details of cargo loaded in a container, eg. weight (individual and total), measurement, markings, shippers, consignees, the origin & destination of goods, and location of cargo within the container.
Container number The unique identification of a container.
Container part load A shipment that does not utilize the full volume of a container nor the maximum payload by weight; additional part loads may be added.
Container seal number The number of high security seal provided by OOCL.
Container service charge See THC.
Container size The length of a container i.e. 20'', 40'' and 45'' (feet).
Container status The status of a container in term of location, custody and cargo status for cargo tracking use.
Container type The purpose of a container of which the code is to be adhered to ISO standard.
Containerizable cargo Cargo that will fit into a container and result in an economical shipment consistent with delivery requirements.
Containerization Stowage of general or special cargoes in a container for transport in the various modes.
Containerload A load sufficient in size to fill a container either by cubic measurement or by weight.
Containership An ocean vessel specifically designed to carry ocean cargo containers. It is fitted with vertical cells for maximum capacity.
Contract carrier Any person not a common carrier who, under special and individual contracts or agreements, transports passengers or property for compensation.
Controlled atmosphere (CA) An atmosphere in which oxygen, carbon dioxide and nitrogen concentrations are regulated, as well as temperature and humidity.
Copy B/L Duplicate of original bill of lading and is non-negotiable.
Corner castings Fittings on top and bottom of container corner posts; designed for handling and securing a container.
Corner posts (door posts) Vertical frame components fitted at the corners of the container, integral to the corner fittings and connecting the roof and floor structures.
Correction memo A kind of internal document which registers amendment to bill of lading and/or manifest after bill of lading is issued to shipper.
Corrector See Correction Memo.
Cost matrix Cost matrix is showing cost at a very basic level between two shipment points.
Cost, insurance and freight (C.I.F.) One of 13 INCOTERMS.
Cost, Insurance and Freight means that the seller delivers when the goods pass the ship's rail in the port of shipment.
Credit agreement
Agreement between carrier and shipper for release of cargo with promise to pay ocean freight within specific time.
Cu. Cubic. A unit of volume measurement.
Cubic foot 1,728 cubic inches.
Custom house A country Treasury Department office where duties, etc., on foreign shipments are handled.
Customers own transport Customer collects from/deliver to CFS/CY.
Customhouse broker

Also known as Custom Broker. A person or firm, licensed to engage in entering and clearing goods through customs and/or the government office (Custom house) where duties and/or tolls are placed on imports or exports. The duties of a broker include preparing the entry blank and filing it; advising the importer on duties to be paid; advancing duties and other costs; and, arranging for delivery to his client, his trucking firm, or other carrier.

Customs bonded warehouse See bonded warehouse.
Customs invoice A form requiring all data in a commercial invoice along with a certificate of value and/or a certificate of origin. Required in a few countries (usually former British territories) and usually serves as a seller's commercial invoice.
Cut-off time Lastest possible time cargo may be delivered to vessel or designated point.
Cwt. Hundredweight (U.S.A., 100 pounds; United Kingdom, 112 pounds).
D & H
Dangerous and Hazardous. Also see Dangerous Goods.
Dead Weight. The number of tons a ship can transport of cargo, stores and bunker fuel. Also see Deadweight Tonnage.
One of 13 INCOTERMS.
Delivered at Frontier means that the seller delivers when the goods are placed at the disposal of the buyer on the arriving means of tranport not unloaded, cleared for export but not cleared for import at the named point and place at the frontier, but before the customs border of the adjoining country.
Destination Delivery Charges. A charge assessed by the carrier for handling positioning of a full container.
One of 13 INCOTERMS.
Delivery duty paid means that the seller delivers the goods to the buyer, cleared for import, and not unloaded from any arriving means of tranport at the named place of destination. The seller has to bear all the costs and risks involved in bringing the goods thereto including where applicable, any duty(which term includes the responsibility for and the risk of the carrying out of customs formalities and the payment of formalities, customs duties, taxes and other charges) for import in the country of destination.
One of 13 INCOTERMS.
Delivery duty unpaidmeans that the seller delivers the goods to the buyer, not cleared for import, and not unloaded from any arriving means of transport at the named place of destination. The seller has to bear the costs and risks involved in bringing the goods thereto, other than, where applicable, any duty (which term includes the responsibility for and the risks of the carrying out of customs formalities, and the payment of formalities, customs duties, taxes and other charges) for import in the country of destination. Such duty has to be borne by the buyer as well as any costs and risks caused by his failure to clear the goods for import in time.
One of 13 INCOTERMS.
Delivered Ex Quaymeans that the seller delivers when the goods are placed at the disposal of the buyer not cleared for import on the quay (wharf) at the named port of destination. The seller has to bear costs and risks involved in bringing the goods to the named port of destination and discharging the goods on the quay (wharf). The DEQ term requires the buyer to clear the goods for import and to pay for all formalities, duties, taxes and other charges upon import.
One of 13 INCOTERMS.
Delivered Ex Shipmeans that the seller delivers when the goods are placed at the disposal of the buyer on board the ship not cleared for import at the named port of destination. The seller has to bear all the costs and risks involved in bringing the goods to the named port of dstination before discharging. If the parties wish the seller to bear the costs and risks of discharging the goods, then the DEQ term should be used.
DFG refers to Dynamic Flow Guidelines, which is used to control the onland stock level of each region taking into account of the traffic pattern and local vanning/devaniing dwell time. The shortest the dwell time, the lowest the DFG and the more efficient the equipment utilization will be.
DOT Department of Transport. Government Department with responsibility for shipping and transport.
DST Double Stack Train. Rail or train capable of carrying two 40' containers, one on top of the other.
Dangerous Cargo
Please refer to Dangerous Goods.
Dangerous Goods
The term used by I.M.C.O. for hazardous materials which are capable of posing a significant risk to health, safety or property while being transported.
Dead Space
Space in a car, truck, vessel, etc., that is not utilized.
Deadweight Tonnage (D/W)
The number of total weight tons that a vessel can transport of cargo, stores and bunker fuel. It is the difference between the number of tons of water a vessel displaces light and the number of tons it displaces when submerged to the load line.
Dedicated Unit Train
An unit train operated by various railroads for exclusive usage.
Delivery Order
A document authorizing delivery to a nominated party of goods in the care of a third party. Can be issued by a carrier on surrender of a bill of lading and then used by merchant to transfer title by endorsement.
Demurrage (Dem.)
Charge raised for detaining FCL container/trailer at a terminal/CY for longer period than provided in a tariff. Also known as Wharf Storage in Australia.
Disposing vessels to maximize customer satisfaction, utilization, efficiency and revenue-generating potential.
Depot, Container
Container freight station or a designated area where empty containers can be picked up or dropped off.
The place where carrier actually turns over cargo to consignee or his agent.
Charges raised for detaining container/trailer at customers premises for longer period than provided in Tariff.
Detention Charge
See Detention.
The removal of cargo from a container. Also known as unstuffing, unloading or stripping.
Differential Rate
An amount added or deducted from base rate to make a rate to or from some other point or via another route.
The process of storing, transporting goods between the end of the production line and the final customer. It involves set of activities which demands the goods are delivered in desired quality, quantity, place & time.
A change made in the route of a shipment in transit. Also see Reconsignment.
The route of a shipment changed in transit from that shown on the original billing. Used interchangeably with reconsign.
(a) The water alongside a pier or wharf.
(b) Loading or unloading platform at an industrial location or carrier terminal.
Dock Receipt
A form used to acknowledge receipt of cargo at a steamship pier. When delivery of a foreign shipment is completed, the dock receipt is surrendered to the vessel operator or the operator's agent and serves as basis for preparation of the ocean bill of lading.
Dockage Charge for use of a dock.
Documentary Credit The basis of international trade by means of which payment is made against surrender of specified documents.
Door-to-Door Through transportation of a container and its contents from consignor's premises to consignee's premises.
Double-Deck Load A second tier of cargo placed on top of the first tier.
Dray A truck or other equipment designed to haul heavy loads.
Drayage Charge made for local hauling by dray or truck.
Dry Cargo Cargo that does not require temperature control.
Dry Dock An enclosed basin into which a ship is taken for underwater cleaning and repairing. It is fitted with watertight entrance gates which when closed permit the dock to be pumped dry.
Dry-Bulk Container A container constructed to carry grain, powder and other free flowing solids in bulk.
Dunnage (Dge.) Lumber or other material used to brace material in carrier's equipment.
Duty Free Zone
See Free Trade Zone
Dwell Time It is expressed in term of no. of day that a container changed from one status to another e.g. from under inbound load (UIL) to empty available (MTA) to under outbound load (UOL). The shortest the dwell time, the more efficient of the container utilization will be.
European Currency Units.
A financial unit used for EC accounting.
Estimated time of arrival.
Estimated time of departure.
One of 13 INCOTERMS.
Ex worksmeans that the seller delivers when he places the goods at the disposal of the buyer at the seller's premises or another named place (i.e. works, factory, warehouse, etc) not cleared for export and not loaded on any collecting vehicle.
En route
Along the route of movement.
Entry Declaration
See Quarantine Declaration.
A natural plant hormone gas (C2H4)produced in small quantities by plant tissue. Its effects on harvested fruits can be desirable (de-greening and ripening) or undesirable (abbreviated storage, softening). Ethylene effects are cumulative throughout the post harvest life of fruit, and the magnitude of ethylene effects depend upon temperature, exposure time, and ethylene concentration.
A change of state from a liquid to a vapour
Heat-exchanging device which absorbs waste heat from a cargo and transfers the heat to a circulating refrigerant. Evaporators convert low-temperature, low-pressure refrigerant into high-temperature, low-pressure refrigerant. Evaporator fans improve heat transfer by circulating air within the container over the evaporator coils and fins.
Ex Work
An INCOTERMS term of sale applicable to all modes of transport.
Expiry Date
The final date on which the draft and documents must be presented to the negotiating, accepting, paying or issuing bank to effect payment.
Shipment of goods to a foreign country.
Export Declaration
A government document permitting designated goods to be shipped out of the country.
Express B/L
A special facility granted by carrier under guarantees from shipper/consignee to release cargo to named consignee without presenting original B/L.
Also called Sea Waybill